SOY

The soy (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), species of great economic importance, had as origin center the Asian continent, more necessarily the corresponding region to Old China. It has bibliographical references, according to which, this leguminosa constituía in alimentary base of the Chinese people has 5,000 years more than.
It is consumed on a large scale in the Asian countries, under the most diverse forms. The main raw material source was introduced in the United States of the North America, being for the eatable vegetal oil extration for use in the feeding human being. The soy oil possesss characteristics that become it more healthful of what the oils of peanut and caroço of cotton. The resultant bran of the extration of the oil, for its high text in protein, is an important ingredient in the elaboration of animal ration. For the case of the human consumption, the soy bran worn out and is bolted in 100 bolter of mesh, giving origin to the flour of taken away the fat soy, with a 47% protein text around, with low percentages of fat and staple fibres. It has functional properties, that they become it a well versatile alimentary ingredient and of low cost. Certainly, the flour addition of taken away the fat soy the products the base of cereals, as maize and wheat flours, is half a cheap one to improve the nutricional value. On the other hand, progressos notables have been obtained in the development of substitute products of the meat and the milk of cow. Thus, the flour of taken away the fat soy can substitute part of maize and wheat flour, raising the protéico value of the elaborated nourishing products. The wheat flour has a protein text of about 12,7% and the flour of maize taken away the fat (degerminado) of 7,9%.
In the United States, the research has been immense objectifying optimum exploitation of the derivatives of the soy in the feeding human being. In Brazil, the culture of the soy occurred from the decade of 1.950, that it passed for an extraordinary expansion, becoming our producing country as the world-wide one, exceeded only for the United States. The main use of the soy grains is for the attainment of the eatable oil and the bran for animal ration.
In the United States, the research has been immense objectifying optimum exploitation of the derivatives of the soy in the feeding human being. In Brazil, the culture of the soy occurred from the decade of 1,950, that it passed will be an extraordinary expansion, becoming our producing country the world-wide one, exceeded only will be the United States. The main uses of the soy grains is will be the attainment of the eatable oil and the bran will be animal ration.
The children, in reason of the cost, do not have the habit to consume cow milk. Exactly when consumed, they only accept it when perfumed, with preference of the strawberry and chocolate flavors. Long milk perfumed life was packed in boxes with capacity for 200 ml. With one kilo of soy grains seven liters of milk had been gotten, with similar chemical composition to the one of the cow milk. To gotten milk 4% of sugar and 0.2% of salt had been added. The preferred aromas had been of chocolate and strawberry. The acceptance of the soy milk was very good, without no rejection.
Another tested product was the mixing flour pasta, gotten of wheat contends 20% of flour of taken away the fat soy, was served in the macarronada form of, having been compared with only the elaborated one with wheat flour. They had not obtained to detect difference enters the two types of pasta, exactly on the part of the teachers. In a program of feeding of gestantes and wet-nurses, a composed flour flour was prepared maize degerminado, of flour of taken away the fat soy and milk in skimmed dust, adding a certain portion of sugar. The product had good acceptance, allowing to offer to a food of good nutritional value the reduced cost. Some São Paulo cities, as of Mogí Guaçu, they possess small unit for perfumed and pasteurizado milk processing of soy. Milk is packed in plastic sachets with capacity of 200 ml, being kept cooled. It is distributed to take care of to the pupils of the schools of 1º degree. In the case of the Service of Feeding of Mogí Guaçu, is produced daily 1,200 liters of soy milk, to take care of to the devoid communities and the alérgica population to the cow milk. The flour of soy taken away the fat and very used in the protéico enrichment of breads, big cookies, pies and other types of confectionery foods. For its functional characteristics, the isolated protéico of soy very is used in the processing of cárneos products. It possesss a protein text above of 90%. It is used in the processing of inlaid works, almôndegas, quibe, to hambúrguer and of other cárneos products. About 90% of the consumed protein of soy in the Asian countries he is under the form of a type of called cheese tofu. He is gotten by the coagulation of the soy milk. The pressed curdle constitutes tofu. Had to the high text of humidity it grows worse itself quickly. He possesss about 5 8% of protein. In Brazil, it very he is consumed by the population of Asian origin. In this way, the soy and its derivatives, offer excellent possibilities, as a protein of high quality to be employed under the most varied forms, in the processing of nourishing products destined to the human consumption, with better nutritional value and reduced costs. Cyro Gonçalves Teixeira



 

by Alexandre Dávalos